Mister Zarqawi, He Dead

The world reacts:

Zoloft Pony: “Two 500lb bombs right on his safe house. NOT SO SAFE NOW, IS IT, BITCH?!”

Roger L. Simon: “Goodbye, good riddance, you human nightmare!”

Atrios: “I’m supposed to give the obligatory “YAY USA!” cheer here, but while it’s good to get the bad guys I don’t really think it’s going to improve much. Hopefully I’m wrong.”

Christopher Hitchens: “Zarqawi contributed enormously to the wrecking of Iraq’s experiment in democratic federalism. He was able to help ensure that the Iraqi people did not have one single day of respite between 35 years of war and fascism, and the last three-and-a-half years of misery and sabotage. He chose his targets with an almost diabolical cunning, destroying the U.N. headquarters in Baghdad (and murdering the heroic envoy Sérgio Vieira de Melo) almost before it could begin operations, and killing the leading Shiite Ayatollah Hakim outside his place of worship in Najaf. His decision to declare a jihad against the Shiite population in general, in a document of which Weaver (on no evidence) doubts the authenticity, has been the key innovation of the insurgency: applying lethal pressure to the most vulnerable aspect of Iraqi society. And it has had the intended effect, by undermining Grand Ayatollah Sistani and helping empower Iranian-backed Shiite death squads. Not bad for a semiliterate goon and former jailhouse enforcer from a Bedouin clan in Jordan.”

Will Collier: “Rest in pieces.”

Loast at Fark.com: “Ok, so I’m a communist totally opposed to the US foreign policies at the moment with the exception of genuine humanitarian aid. BUT, Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi was a farkin’ animal. Murderer, reactionary, fanatic, what you will. Good riddance, that man was a cold blooded killer with no allegiance but his own cult. No shedding tears over a cold-blooded psychopath with hints of a messiah complex. That is, if he really is dead, which is only what the US states, and we all know how truthful those bastards are.”

Scorpinoc at Fark.com: “How about we start a “head on pike” collection in the White House mens room? One head on a pike per urinal. Get some video of the US Presidential staff pissing on the heads of dead terrorists and circulate that through the middle east.”

Caller on the Diane Rhem Show, in tears: “I woke up this morning and learned my country had dropped a bomb on someone’s head….”

Tony Blair: “Every day we hear of the death toll through the fomenting of civil strife: a campaign of murder, and kidnapping and brutality — all of it designed to stifle Iraqi democracy at birth, and al-Zarqawi was its most vicious prosecutor.”

Iraqi blogger Hammorabi: “There were celebrations going on now in the holly city of Najaf and Kerbala. On the other hands there are sadness and shock among his allies in the region and abroad like Al-Jazeera Qatari TV and other Arab pro-terrorists thugs.”

Official statement of Hamas, ie the Palestinian government: “With hearts full of faith, Hamas commends brother-fighter Abu Musab … who was martyred at the hands of the savage crusade campaign which targets the Arab homeland, starting in Iraq.”

MarcC in my comments section: “To paraphrase Jacques Chirac, Hamas missed a perfect opportunity to shut up, when they instead publicly mourned the death of Zarqawi at the hands of the savage crusader campaign aimed at the Arab heartland. And just when everybody was starting to forget the image of the Palestinian fatmas flashing V signs and tossing candies on 9/11. What a bunch of assholes.”

Beirut Daily Star Editorial: “In what now appears to have been his last audiotape, he unleashed a torrent of slurs against Shiites, hopefully revealing to a great many Iraqi Sunnis that his real purpose was not their welfare but rather their cousins’ subjugation and extermination. Without the presence of Zarqawi as a driving force for the perpetual acceleration of the conflict, it might be possible to engage hard-line Sunnis and convince them that their best interests lie in seeking an acceptable compromise that would permit all Iraqis to at last put conflict behind them and get on with the business of rebuilding their shattered country.”

One of Big Pharoah’s Egyptian Colleagues: “Man it’s all a conspiracy. The Americans killed him after he became useless to them. Just like Saddam.”

Egyptian Sandmonkey: “Ding Dong the asshole is dead! Zarqa is dead (He got killed on 6/6/06 nonetheless, anyone else noticed that?). The bloodthirsty Jihady fuckhead is no more, and is hopefully rotting in hell as we speak! Good-bye douchebag, it couldn’t have happend to a more appropriate person!”

Karim Elsahy, One Arab World: “Death aint never been prettier.”

Nouri Lumendifi, The (Algerian) Moor Next Door: “Is it bad that I am happy?”

Got the Motherfucker

Abu Musab al-Zarqawi is dead.


UPDATE: A Kurdish Iraqi friend sent me the following email from Erbil.

Yes, Zarqawi was killed and sent to the dustbin of history…

Congratulations to all the Iraqi people…

Congratulations to the families of Zarqawi victims, civilians, children, Iraqi army and police…

Congratulations to the families of the fallen brave American GIs and multinational forces helping transfer Iraq from dictatorship to democracy…

Congratulations to all the gallant Peshmerga forces who are actively participating in hunting down Al-Qaeda and Zarqawi’s mercenaries…

Congratulations to all freedom and peace lovers all over the world…

To hell Mr. Zarqawi …

May Bin Laden be next…Amen…

“They Call Us Cockroaches”

I mentioned before that I interviewed Hezbollah’s Mohammad Afif in the suburbs south of Beirut and that he had almost nothing to say that wasn’t boilerplate propaganda. It was boring and useless and I saw no point in publishing it. But he did say two interesting things. The first I quoted here. And here is the second:

I asked him what he thought of Al Qaeda in Mesopotamia, Zarqawi’s head-chopping mosque-burning faction in Iraq. I knew he would condemn them, of course, but I didn’t expect to find his condemnation convincing.

But I did, as it turned out, find his condemnation convincing.

“We hate them,” he said. “They call us cockroaches and murder our people.”

It’s hard to think he came up with that answer just to assuage me. Hezbollah is Arab and Shia just as many of Zarqawi’s victims in Iraq are.

Mohammad Afif’s opposition to Al Qaeda in Mesopotamia is instinctive. Nouri Lumendifi, an Algerian Shia who blogs at The Moor Next Door, is a little more (actually, a lot more) liberal and thoughtful about it. “I hate Islamists,” he says. And then he says more.

UPDATE: From Instapundit:

HEZBOLLAH hates Zarqawi. Overall, his popularity seems rather low.

UPDATE: And Zarqawi hates Hezbollah!

Is it just me, or is the Middle East a lot like 7th Grade with RPGs?

It’s also a bit like a loony bin with RPGs. I mean, for God’s sake, Zarqawi is accusing Hezbollah of being a cover for Israel. He would be hilarious if he weren’t a psychopath.

UPDATE: Got the motherfucker. He’s dead.

“Face to Face with My Occupier”

There are more closeted Israel-supporters in Lebanon than you think. (And by “supporter” I don’t mean Zionist partisans, but those who want the cold Lebanese/Israeli war to end and a normalization of relations.) I met quite a few in Beirut, two of whom were – counterintuitively – Shia, the most vehemently anti-Israel sect in Lebanon. There might be even more on (Maronite Christian) Mount Lebanon, but I didn’t look for them there so I don’t actually know.

That said, Israel is emphatically not the average Lebanese citizen’s favorite country. I find the prevailing attitude about Israel in Lebanon painfully reactionary. It’s treason to wave hello to an Israeli civilian on the border, for instance, and you cross a “red line” by even having this conversation in public.

Still, having said that, Lebanese do not think of Israel and Israelis the way people in other Arabic-speaking countries do. There is relatively little of the Jew-hating poison typical of Egypt in Lebanon. I did not hear a single Lebanese say they wish to destroy Israel utterly, although I know some do think that. (I never heard anyone say they wish to destroy Syria, either, and probably none of them want to.) Most Lebanese, at least most of those I talked to and argued with about this, ground their grievances in what Israel actually did and does rather than in anti-Semitic hallucinations. (“The Joooos sent us the AIDS virus” is a popular one in Egypt.)

The Lebanese do have a case. (Most Israelis are themselves well aware that the invasion and occupation of Lebanon was a disaster for everyone involved.) There isn’t much sympathy for this point of view in the U.S., partly I think because Americans assume the Lebanese point of view is akin to that of Hamas and the Iranian mullahs. But it isn’t, and I think their point of view (whether you can ultimately sympathize with it or not) should be understood for what it is rather than imagined as something else.

Perpetual Refugee is still writing about his clandestine visits to Israel as a Lebanese citizen. In his latest essay on this subject he writes about meeting a former Israeli soldier who was stationed in Lebanon.

Here I was. Staring at him. Face to face with my occupier.

There he was. Staring at me. Face to face with his sniper.

Go read. And try to understand. Understand how raw and traumatized Lebanese people still are, not only from their rough encounters with Israeli soldiers but from their rough encounters with each other. Understand how contact with average Israelis can soothe that trauma, just as contact with former internal enemies in the post-war era soothed the trauma of their civil war. That’s one reason among many the border needs to be open and the “treason” laws need to be scrapped. Everyone involved in that conflict, foreign as well as local, needs to make their peace with it so it doesn’t start up again. That war ended 16 years ago. But it reverberates more powerfully in present-day Lebanon than the wider Arab-Israeli conflict, with which it should not be confused.

(I should point out that Perpetual Refugee’s essays are getting a very favorable response from both Lebanese and Israelis. See the comments thread.)

Why Hezbollah Circles the Drain

Lebanese reader Omega80 left a comment here that deserves to be promoted to the front page since the problem of Hezbollah has come up again. He does an excellent job explaining how they are viewed by most Lebanese today and why. He says he’s going to tell you how it is. And I agree with him. This is pretty much how it is.

For all those that want to know, i’m going to tell you how it is:

Most Lebanese, I included, supported Hezbollah to a certain extent up until Israel withdrew from Lebanon in 2000. For a while after that we also felt that maybe Hezbollah should stay armed, just in case. However, it has been 6 years since Israel withdrew from Lebanon, at it is quite aparent that they will leave us alone as long as we leave them alone.

On top of that, with the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon more than a year ago, new forces came into play. Namely, the fact that Hezbollah is a sectarian group that is armed, the only group in Lebanon that is armed. Thus, it is not about Israel anymore, but rather, about internal Lebanese dynamics, namely, that one community armed while others aren’t tips the delicate balance in Lebanon’s confessional system.

Since having all groups armed is not the way to create a country, and we all have seen the effects of this, the only solution is for Hezbollah to disarm. Israel will leave us alone as long as we leave them alone, so that aspect is covered. Now mind you, that’s not to say that Israel is not a threat, however, any disarmament of Hezbollah would go hand in hand with security guarantees from the U.N. and the U.S. that Israel will not bother Lebanon anymore.

The fact of the matter is that Hezbollah is going to disarm sometime down the road, sooner rather than later. The only other alternative in the long term is civil conflict in Lebanon again. Everyone is being patient now because they KNOW that Hezbollah will disarm. However, if it does become fact that Hezbollah is not going to disarm, over the long term other Lebanese groups and communities will eventually do the same to rectify the balance. Also, we all know that Syria would want nothing other than to see a civil war in Lebanon again, as a prelude to them reasserting themselves in the country.

However, even Shias in Lebanon would not be willing to have another Civil War in Lebanon just so they could stay armed, because that means more death, destruction, and poverty for them as well. To put it in basic terms, everyone in Lebanon wants Hezbollah disarmed except Syrian stooges and Hezbollah themselves. That includes right wing Maronites, left wing Maronites, socialist Druze, urban Sunni, and many Shia as well.

22nd Century Arabia

I did not meet a single person, foreign or expat, in Beirut who has been to Dubai and had much nice to say about it. Most described it as a culture- and history-free shopping mall on the Gulf, an Arab Las Vegas which can’t hold up to Beirut’s authenticity. Maybe they’re right. I don’t know. I haven’t been there. But check out what the skyline will look like after the Burj Dubai skyscraper, the soon-to-be tallest building in the entire world, is finished. (Hat tip: One Arab World.)

dubai tower.jpg

Big mall on the Gulf or not, that skyline looks like the 22nd Century. Heck, that could be a model city in a Star Trek movie. And Dubai has little oil. The place is built to last.

Michael Yon was there recently and was very impressed, although he did see it through Iraq-colored eyes. He had this to say, which is worth pointing out:

It was embarrassing when the United States erupted a month ago over the port security issue, and in so doing hurled insults at our friends in the UAE. I know nothing about port security and so cannot comment on that issue. I can, however, attest that the UAE is a strong, intelligent and reliable ally, very pro-West and pro-American, and before we reflexively stone our friends, it would be wise to remember that good friends are hard to find. It’s too bad no one in a position to know had the foresight to let the average American in on that. This is a part of the world most people know very little about, and the little they do know makes them anxious about knowing much more.

Our friends in the UAE want the Coalition efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan to succeed, and they are vocal about it. While much of the west, including many of our oldest allies, postures on about how the war on terror is a horrible mistake, the sentiment in the UAE is that it would be a horrible mistake not to face the facts about our common enemy, an enemy that might be just as happy to destroy the UAE as America. The people of the Emirates that I asked about the port security issue merely politely shrugged it off, but our loosely flung words did land here, with a big, dull thud…

There are not hundreds of giant cranes working in Dubai, but thousands. Where is all the money, water, and power coming from? What will happen a decade from now? Is this a bubble? I do not know. But I do know that the leaders here are thinking about and planning for a peaceful and prosperous future, a future not dependent on oil or war or terrorism.

Leave Beirut Out of It

Yesterday I wrote “The UN blames Lebanon for starting the latest round of fighting [on the Lebanese/Israeli border], which is dumb.” I am slightly surprised that only two people argued with me in the comments, but I’ll explain what I meant here in any case.

If the UN were somehow forced to blame either Lebanon or Israel for the recent clashes on the border, of course Lebanon should be blamed. Shots were fired from that side first. But Lebanon/Israel is a false dichotomy. Hezbollah physically exists within the borders of Lebanon. But Hezbollah’s capital is Tehran. Its sidekick capital is Damascus.

Lebanon is a sort-of democracy. It is also, in some ways, a failed state. As recently as 1990 it was the Somalia of the Levant. The government existed in name only. The country was carved into de-facto cantons ruled by local warlords and foreign occupation forces. Most Lebanese militias were disarmed at the start of the 1990s. But Israeli occupation forces remained in the south until 2000. Syrian occupation forces remained until 2005. Hezbollah, forged in Lebanon by Iran during the chaos of war, has yet to be disarmed despite the fact that most Lebanese fear and loathe them. Lebanon is not yet a sovereign country. The Beirut government has no writ in Hezbollah-occupied territory, and the military is not allowed to enter those regions. One of those two regions is the Lebanese/Israeli border. (The other is in the suburbs south of Beirut.)

Lebanon cannot disarm Hezbollah alone. Any attempt to do so will restart the civil war. And Hezbollah would win. It is insanely not in Lebanon’s interest to do this.

Hezbollah would win for a host of reasons. They are better armed. They are better trained. They are battle-hardened after slugging it out with the Israeli Defense Forces for years.

Lebanese army soldiers are bored conscripts who receive almost no training. Most would rather drink beer and chase girls than stand around all day at checkpoints and on street corners with machine guns trying to make Lebanon look like it’s an orderly place. (It isn’t.) The last thing they want to do is shoot at Lebanese and be shot at by Lebanese.

Hezbollah fighters are fanatics who can’t wait to die. They are supported by governments far more powerful than the one in Beirut. And they are supported by at least one government that is violently hostile to the one in Beirut.

The UN and the US brokered a ceasefire after Israel threatened to bomb Beirut if Hezbollah’s katyusha rocket attacks didn’t stop. I have my doubts that Israel would actually bomb Beirut. The IDF officer I spoke to in Israel knew full well that Beirut has no control over Hezbollah. But it’s not his decision, and I don’t know what his higher-ups know and don’t know. If the threat was an empty one designed to bring on a ceasefire, it worked. If Israel actually intended to bomb Beirut, the Middle East might get a lot more dangerous in the near future.

Most Lebanese supported Hezbollah when Israel occupied South Lebanon. They didn’t appreciate Israeli occupation any more than they appreciated Syrian occupation. Now that Israel is out, Hezbollah is rightly seen as a throwback to the hated era of war. The quickest way to undo that progress is to make the Lebanese people fear Israel more than they fear Hezbollah and Syria. Neither Israel nor Lebanon would benefit from that scenario. But it would suit Syria and Iran perfectly well.

It isn’t fair that Israel has to endure missile attacks because the Beirut government is too weak and divided against itself to take on Hezbollah. It isn’t Israel’s fault that the Lebanese army is a pipsqueaker compared with better-armed, better-trained, battle-hardened foreign agent militia. But that’s how it is. And that’s how it will be while the Baathists rule in Damascus and the mullahs rule in Tehran. If Israel must use military force against a foreign capital, rather than against Hezbollah directly and strictly, those are the addresses.

I Am Here

A year or so ago a number of people posted photos of the places in their homes where they blog. Here is the place where my posts are made when I’m not in a wi-fi café:


Photos can be odd. Somehow the disorganization on the bookshelves is more noticeable in this picture than in real life. (You can tell which books I’ve been reading because they’re stacked sideways.) My office looks smaller, too, although this is only one-fourth of it. And the wall color is off. Is it me, my camera, or does photography always distort interior rooms one way or another?

What Now?

Lebanon.Profile writes in my comments section:

You might want to blog for two months about quirks. They don’t have to be serious.

Remember trying to send the fax, find the post office, getting pulled over at the checkpoint by the cop who wanted to see your passport (that really upset me), your neighbors, conversations with Wissam, servis, Brooks, L’O (you really should have gotten pictures of that place – it would totally surprise your audience), Patchi (although, I don’t know if you remember heading over there during your first trip).

You really should write a post about all the oddball Westerners running around. Their strange need to live in Hezbollah occupied areas. Their complete lack of understanding of their milieu, and their anti-Christian sectarianism.

Most importantly, I think you should write a post on how you saw Lebanon change over the period you were there. Your understanding of the country increased greatly, but the country changed a lot: from 14 March spirit, to despondence, to building frenzies, to the party scene losing passion in coordination with political spirit.

He’s right that I could spend quite a lot of time writing about this sort of thing. Do you all want to read about it?

By the way, the Lebanese/Israeli border blew up again just as the Lebanese army and the IDF told me it would. The UN blames Lebanon for starting the latest round of fighting, which is dumb. If you’re going to blame a country for the behavior of locally despised street gangs with foreign policies (that would be Hezbollah and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command), blame this one and this one.

Changing the Channel

Since I’m out of original Middle East material (for now) and I don’t feel particularly opinionated about domestic politics one way or the other, the content on this blog will soon become a bit more eclectic. Might as well go all out and start with this, overheard in Ann Althouse’s comments section.

[T]he fun actually begins when you are a grown-up. Being a kid kind of sucks. When you are a kid you are short and stupid.

Responsibility kind of sucks, too, but that’s the price you pay for booze and sex.

(I guess it’s time to change that banner up top to something more general, at least until I get back from Iran. Anyone have any ideas? I should, but I don’t.)


It is no secret that Arabs in Iraq are pissed off at Arabs in neighboring countries who cheerleaded Saddam Hussein and who now rally behind the head-chopping car-bombing fanatics tearing the country to pieces. But they aren’t the only disgruntled Arabs around.

Check out the latest post from Perpetual Refugee, a Lebanese blogger visiting and writing about Israel. See what happens when someone from Lebanon tries to make personal connections with Arabs in Israel. You won’t read anything like this from a mainstream reporter, especially not from the likes of Al Jazeera reporters.

He didn’t deserve that kind of treatment, but at least his story has a happy ending.

Elsewhere in Lebanon

Lebanon is the closest thing I have to a second home. It is the only country other than the United States where I’ve ever lived. It’s nice to be home in Oregon, but sometimes I’m homesick for Lebanon too.

Here are 32 photos of a country that (unnecessarily) frightens some of my fellow Americans, but is actually perfect for tourists.

Jounieh from Water.JPG

The port city of Jounieh.

Northern Suburbs from Boat.jpg

The northern suburbs of Beirut.

Peter on his Boat.JPG

Daily Star managing editor Peter Grimsditch tells war stories on his boat.

Driving Northern Beirut Suburbs.jpg

Driving north from Beirut.

Byblos Castle.JPG

The castle at Byblos.

Ruins at Byblos.jpg

Roman ruins at Byblos.

Byblos Harbor.jpg

The oldest continuously used port in the world (founded by the Phoenicians) at Byblos.

Shells on Byblos Beach.jpg

Marble rocks on the beach.

Byblos Sunset.jpg

A sunset over the Mediterranean.

Byblos Night.jpg

The Byblos souk at twilight.

Saida from Sea Castle.jpg

Rafik Hariri’s hometown of Saida.

Sea Castle Saida.JPG

The remnants of a Crusader sea castle right in front of the old city of Saida.

Village South Lebanon.jpg

A Shia village in South Lebanon just outside the Hezbollah-occupied zone.

Chouf Village Square.JPG

The central square of a village in the Chouf mountains, homeland of the Druze.

Chouf Mountains Valley.jpg

A Chouf mountain valley at the edge of Lebanon’s largest Cedar Reserve.

Suset Over the Chouf.JPG

A sunset over the Chouf.

Temple of Bachus.JPG

The Temple of Bachus, Roman city of Baalbeck, Bekaa Valley.

Baalbeck Cat.JPG

A stray baby kitten at Baalbeck.

Road Up Mount Lebanon.jpg

The road up Mount Lebanon, homeland of the Maronite Catholics for more than 1,000 years.

Mount Lebanon Geography.JPG

Rough geography on Mount Lebanon.

Rugged Qadisha Valley.JPG

The rugged Qadisha Valley.

Bcherre Car 3.JPG

An unhappy car on Mount Lebanon.

Bcherre Car 2.JPG

Another unhappy car on Mount Lebanon.

Bcherre Car 1.JPG

Yet another unhappy car on Mount Lebanon! All of these were less than 100 feet apart.


Bcherre, birthplace of Khalil Gibran.

Khalil Gibran Statue.JPG

My mother in front of a statue of Khalil Gibran, Bcherre.

Cedars of Lebanon.JPG

The majestic Cedars of Lebanon. Some are said to have been there during the time of the Roman Empire.

Inside Cedar Reserve.JPG

Inside Mount Lebanon’s Cedar Reserve.

Mount Lebanon Sunset.jpg

A winter sunset over Mount Lebanon.

Village Mount Lebanon.jpg

One of the many Ottoman-era villages of Mount Lebanon.

Shrine Mount Lebanon.JPG

A Maronite shrine.

Church in Clouds Mount Lebanon.JPG

A Maronite church in the clouds at the top of the world.

This is Beirut

Well, it had to happen. I’m out of fresh material from the Middle East until I go back and get more. Iran is next on the list…if the mullahs will let me in. It will be a while before I know one way or the other.

In the meantime, I have more than a thousand digital pictures that no one has seen yet. Here are 30 of them. All were taken in, of, and above Beirut, Lebanon, my favorite city in the Middle East by far.

Lebanon Shore from Balloon.jpg

Mount Sannine rises above the Mediterranean and Beirut’s northern suburbs. Photo taken from a hot air balloon over downtown.

Balcony View Day.JPG

I saw this lovely view of the Mediterranean every single day from the balcony of my apartment above the American University of Beirut.

Balcony View Night.JPG

And I saw this lovely view every night. I doubt I’ll ever have such a view again from my house.

Solidere from Balloon 1.jpg

Downtown Beirut from the air.

Solidere from Balloon 2.jpg

Downtown Beirut from the air.

Martyrs Square from Balloon.jpg

The top of the Green Line that divided East and West Beirut during the civil war. That big empty space you see was the part of downtown that didn’t survive. Martyr’s Square is down there. When a million Lebanese demonstrated against Syrian occupation last year, that’s where they did it. They filled the whole space. Then they overflowed it.

Moving Cars Solidere.jpg

Solidere, downtown Beirut.

Colorful Windows Beirut Night.JPG

Solidere, downtown Beirut.

Grand Cafe Beirut.jpg

Solidere, downtown Beirut.

Grand Cafe Beirut Night.JPG

Solidere, downtown Beirut.

Italian Restaurant Solidere.jpg

View from an Italian restaurant, downtown Beirut.

Cranes Beirut.jpg

Lots of new construction next to the restored downtown.

East Beirut from Balloon.jpg

East Beirut from the air.

Achrafieh Street.jpg

A street in Achrafieh, East Beirut.

Achrafieh Street 2.jpg

A street in Achrafieh, East Beirut.

Beirut Cemetery.JPG

Cemetery, East Beirut.

Claudias Achrafieh.jpg

Claudia’s, Achrafieh, East Beirut.

Corleone Gemmayze.jpg

A gangster-themed trattoria, Gemmayze, East Beirut.

Tribeca Beirut.jpg

Off Monot Street, Achrafieh, East Beirut.

De Prague.jpg

A bohemian bar named De Prague, Hamra, West Beirut.

Fishing on Corniche.jpg

Fishing off the Corniche, West Beirut.

Glass Tower Beirut.jpg

New construction, West Beirut.

Starbucks West Beirut.JPG

Lots of people I know were surprised to hear Beirut has Starbucks. (Lebanon isn’t Afghanistan, okay?) There are three Starbucks coffeeshops in Beirut. This one is on the shore of the Mediterranean in Rouche, West Beirut.

Vero Moda Hamra.jpg

My old neighborhood of Hamra, West Beirut.

Dependence 06.jpg

An AiZone advertisement riffs on the Independence 05 movement.

Holiday Inn 45 Degrees.jpg

A war-shattered Holiday Inn.

Holiday Inn from Balloon.JPG

A war-shattered Holiday Inn.

War Damage Beirut.jpg

War damage along the old Green Line. One of my neighbors in Oregon used to live near this building. His old house no longer exists. He does not know which militia destroyed it.

How Beautiful the Middle East…Could Be

“Something there is that doesn’t love a wall, that wants it down” – Robert Frost

Lebanese blogger Perpetual Refugee wrote the following in Israeli

blogger Lisa Goldman’s comments section.

I can image the drive up to Beirut from Tel Aviv. You’d of course take the scenic route. The Mediterranean always on your left hand side. I would assume you’d leave in the morning, the sun already having risen in the east. It would be sunny. It usually is. As you drive north past Haifa, the terrain starts to roll. The hills become mountains. Acre. Nahariyya. Then the border. The Lebanese customs officer smiles and being Lebanese, starts to chat you up. He’ll impress you with a

‘Bokaltov’ followed by ‘Bienvenue a Liban’. You enter without any problems. Your Israeli passport stamped. Your license plates remain as they are. And you drive. The signs are now in Arabic and French. You already feel the difference, and yet, you’re comfortable. It still feels good, comfortable. You get excited as you pass the ancient city of Tyre. You feel the urge to stop and see what Alexander the Great found so fascinating about the city. But you don’t. You’ll be back. Further north, you reach Saida (Sidon). It’s stunning, a bit more Islamic in feel. Again, you want to stop but not today. Today you have a date with Beirut. And you’ll fall in love.

Perpetual Refugee is in Israel now even though his government absolutely forbids him to go there. This should be required reading. Especially if you’re Lebanese.

The Other Side of the Green Line

West Bank Through Barbed Wire.jpg

RAMALLAH – I rode in an Israeli taxi with Palestinian journalist Sufian Taha from the American Colony Hotel to the Qalandia checkpoint on the road to Ramallah, capital of nascent Palestine, in the hills of the West Bank over Jerusalem. We had to take a taxi, and we had to switch to a Palestinian taxi after we reached the other side. “You do not want to drive in the West Bank with Israeli plates on your car,” he said.

In the northern suburbs of Jerusalem you can see both sides of the Green Line at the same time. The West Bank is right there. Everything is piled on top of everything else.

“That’s an Arab neighborhood on the left side of the street,” Sufian said. “Israelis live on the right side. They live so close, but they hate each other. They are like cousins fighting over their grandfather’s inheritance.”

Then we hit the wall.

Driving Along the Wall.jpg

“Here the wall divides two Arab neighborhoods from each other,” he said.

“Why did they build it right here?” I said.

“I don’t know why they are doing it here,” he said.

Rocky hills, typical of the Mediterranean, rolled toward the horizon. Arab settlements clustered here, Jewish settlements clustered there, and the wall crazily cut through everything like a snake lost in the grass. It was impossible to intuit the logic just by looking at it.

It took maybe five minutes to reach Qalandia from Jerusalem.

The Wall Begins.jpg

It was time to get out and walk. I could see the skyline of Ramallah just past the checkpoint.

Ramallah Skyline from Qalandia.jpg

“How long is this going to take?” I said to Sufian.

“Sometimes it takes minutes,” he said. “Sometimes it takes hours. It depends on the security situation and how crowded it is.”

This time the checkpoint took only minutes. The line was mercifully short. And the Israeli Defense Forces soldier waved both Sufian and me through in a matter of seconds without asking questions.

My experience at the checkpoint was breezy and pleasant. But it is a hideous thing that looks like a militarized gateway to a Third World disaster. Welcome to Palestine.

Checkpoint Barbed Wire.jpg

We walked past some ramshackle shops blasting Arabic pop music too loud on bad speakers and hopped into a group servis mini-van taxi. There were ten other people inside, six men and four fashionably dressed young women with hijabs over their hair. I was the only non-Palestinian. No one seemed to pay any attention to me.

Two minutes later we were in downtown Ramallah.

“We get out here,” Sufian said and paid the driver my fare.

I stepped out into a surprisingly pleasant urban environment.

Ramallah Building.jpg

Ramallah Square.jpg

“No offense, Sufian, but this city is a lot nicer than I expected,” I said.

“Ramallah is beautiful,” he said with pride.

I didn’t think it was beautiful, exactly, but it did not look even remotely like the Third World war zone it’s reputed to be. I noticed no visible poverty once we left the squalor around the checkpoint. I was, however, warned by Israelis that Ramallah and Bethlehem are much nicer than the rest of the West Bank and need to be judged accordingly.

Ramallah Culture.jpg

“Do you want to meet some people now?” Sufian said.

When he had earlier asked what I wanted to do in Ramallah I told him I wanted to meet Palestinians opposed to Hamas. I already knew what Hamas had to say. They get all the attention in the newspapers now. There is no point in going all the way to the West Bank just so I could publish more of the same predictable bombastic slogans. I had no idea what their opponents were thinking now, and it seemed more worth my time to meet some of them. Sufian himself was a good start.

“Let’s walk around a bit first,” I said. “I want to see what Ramallah is like.”

So we walked.

Ramallah Buildings 1.jpg

There is no more political propaganda on display in Ramallah than there is in Israel. This surprised me after several visits to Lebanon’s Hezbollahland where portraits of “martyrs” and tyrants are literally everywhere.

Hezbollah is moderate and civilized compared with Hamas. So I expected even more visible evidence of derangement in the Hamas government’s capital. But there are at least 100 times as many psychotic billboards and posters in Hezbollah-occupied Lebanon as there are in Ramallah.

Ramallah is also in much better physical condition than the parts of Lebanon ruled by Hezbollah, even though Ramallah has experienced war a lot more recently. In fact, Ramallah is in better condition than any Shia region of Lebanon whether it’s ruled by Hezbollah or not. The only Sunni part of Lebanon that looks nicer than Ramallah is West Beirut.

Ramallah Skyline Up Close.jpg

The Palestinian capital is no longer occupied by the Israelis. I didn’t see any Palestinian policemen either. Nor did I see any Hamas or Fatah milita men. I am so accustomed to seeing men with guns in the Middle East – in Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey – that Ramallah looked weirdly disarmed by comparison. At least it did on the day I was there. (There are lots of guns in Palestine. I am only talking about how Ramallah looked on the surface.)

I’ve experienced this over and over again everywhere I’ve gone in the Middle East (except wretched Turkish Kurdistan): places that are supposedly awful and dangerous are, up close, seemingly normal places full of normal people doing normal things.

Street Scene Ramallah.jpg

Water Vendor Ramallah.jpg

I don’t want to make too much of Ramallah’s apparent normalcy. It is the Hamas government’s capital. And the city is a golden cage. It’s a reasonably pleasant enough place. But it’s surrounded by far worse Palestinian places and off-limits Israeli places.

“The economy here looks a lot better than I expected,” I said to Sufian.

“It was pretty good until Hamas was elected,” he said. “But look in the stores. Notice there are no people in them. The only things people are buying are food and cigarettes. Only the basics. They are afraid to spend money if they have it.”

Store Window Ramallah.jpg

The streets were vibrant, though. The city seemed cultured. There were plenty of women around, which is something always worth noting in Muslim cities. Some are overwhelmingly male dominated. Ramallah is not so much.

I sensed no hostility whatsoever, and it’s not because I fit in.

“People here must think I’m Israeli,” I said to Sufian.

“No,” he said. “The way you look, the way you walk, you are obviously an American.”

I didn’t know about that. In any case, there are a lot of American Jews living in Israel. I sensed Sufian said it to make me feel better. But I didn’t feel bad in the first place. I felt perfectly fine. The only thing that worried me while walking around Ramallah is that I felt too relaxed, that the city looked more at peace with itself and the world than it really is.

Sufian took me to a cafe and bought me a gigantic glass of freshly squeezed juice. We sat at a square wooden table. I sipped my juice through a straw while flipping to a blank page in my notebook.

“Who did you vote for in the election?” I said.

“I didn’t vote,” he said. “There was no one worth voting for. Our parties are terrible.”

I would have said I know the feeling, but Good Lord. Whining about the Democrats and the Republicans to a guy who is stuck with the likes of Yasser Arafat’s Fatah and Hamas would just sound pathetic.

“What do you think about the prospects for peace now that Hamas won?” I said.

“The Israelis have an opportunity,” he said. “A piece of the puzzle was missing before. Permanent peace must have the signature of the Islamists. Now the Israelis can get it.”

The Israelis can get it if the Islamists will give it, and if they will give it sincerely. That doesn’t look even remotely likely any time soon. I asked Yossi Klein Halevi if it was even possible to be optimistic under the circumstances. He said “I’m optimistic that we might be able to solve this after the next war.” That’s about as hopeful as it gets.

Sufian had a point, even so. If Yasser Arafat had signed a peace treaty for sovereignty with Ehud Barak in 2000, Hamas would have ignored it and continued waging jihad for all of historic “Palestine from the river to the sea,” which includes Haifa and Tel Aviv as well as Hebron and Nablus.

Sufian is a Palestinian, not an Israeli Arab. But he has an Israeli residency permit, and he lives in Jerusalem.

“When there is a Palestinian state,” I said, “where you would rather live? In Israel or in Palestine?”

“I don’t care which side I live on,” he said, “as long as I can travel wherever I want.”

I groaned about how tired I was of this conflict that never ends.

“It will be good for everyone when Israel is accepted as part of this region,” he said. “The other countries will get some of Israel’s technology. Everyone will benefit from more money and tourism.”

“What do you think about the intifada?” I said.

“The intifada was about the different political parties trying to earn popularity,” he said. “Hamas was only at two percent in the 1990s. Now they’re popular. Israelis benefited from the intifada, too. They got the wall and the borders they wanted. Hamas is fashionable right now. In five years they won’t be. Many many people voted for them as revenge against Fatah. They are clean. Fatah is a mafia. They are from the 1930s.”

“Was Fatah better or worse than Hamas?” I said.

“They were 1 percent right and 99 percent wrong,” he said. “Arafat was 100 percent pure evil. He was like a messiah to us when he was abroad. When he came here we learned the truth.”

“You live in Jerusalem,” I said. “What do you think about Israelis?”

“I have Israeli friends,” he said. “I tell them things that I don’t tell some of my Arab friends. It depends on the person, not the nationality.”

We sipped our juice.

“I think Americans don’t like Palestinians much,” he said.

“Look,” I said. “Americans don’t like Hamas. Americans don’t like terrorism. It really is that simple. Americans don’t have a problem with people like you just because you’re Palestinian.”

“I don’t know,” he said. “I think you are the exception.”

“No, I’m not,” I said. “I’m typical. As far as politics goes, I’m a middle-of-the-road average American.” But I couldn’t convince him. He is certain most Americans don’t like him just for who he is and where he was born.

It was time to move. Sufian wasn’t the only Palestinian I wanted to talk to.

We walked around the corner and stepped into a fashionable young women’s clothing store owned by Named Saleh Jad Allah, a pre-maturely graying 50 year-old man with a warm smile. Posters of gorgeous French models lined the walls. There were no customers inside his store.

Named didn’t ask why Sufian and I stopped in. He just gave me a cup of Turkish coffee and a cigarette and he asked us to sit. We went through the usual Arab formalities. Where are you from, welcome to Palestine, etc. Our chitchat was punctuated by long silences that were not at all uncomfortable. Arabs relax in conversation with strangers more easily than Westerners do. You don’t have to always be talking. Sometimes it’s nice to just sit there and peaceably enjoy your coffee or tea with other people. (This is doubly true when you’re hanging out with a crazy person.)

I did want to interview him, though, assuming Sufian was right that he did not care much for Hamas. So I took out my notebook.

“What’s it like now that Hamas is in power?”

“Ramallah is nice, but business is not good,” he said. “It is zero. There is no money.”

“Who did you vote for?” I said.

“I voted for Fatah,” he said. “I’m not affiliated with them. They are just a good party to run things. I don’t think Hamas is ready for power. In some things I agree with Fatah, in some things I don’t. Even though they are corrupt, at least we had money. People are boycotting Hamas so now we are poor. We anticipate things will eventually get better, but we don’t have time.”

“Do you worry about Hamas making trouble for you?” I said.

“Yes,” he said. “I sell fashionable clothes. I’m not an expert on what Hamas wants, but they say they will not interfere with the life of the people. We will see.”

Lisa Goldman told me about a Palestinian town that had elected Hamas in the second-most recent election. (I do not recall the town’s name, and I did not write it down.) According to Lisa, Hamas micromanaged the town according to heavy-handed Islamist dogma. So in the most recent election the people of that town threw the thugs out and voted for secular Fatah instead. If Hamas knows what’s good for them (a dubious proposition, to be sure) they’ll keep their religious totalitarian impulses in check now that they’ve won.

“Should Hamas negotiate with the Israelis?” I said to Named.

“Ultimately they will go through the path of negotiation,” he said. “They will be strict at first because of the street, but they will loosen up.”

“What has changed since Hamas came to power?” I said.

“Business,” he said. “The economy dropped down dramatically. Without industry they cannot boost the economy. We import everything from China. We support Chinese workers. We need our own industry.”

“Did the intifada help or hurt the Palestinian cause?” I said.

“Both intifadas were created by the Israelis,” he said. “They fed it and benefited from it. It was very bad for us. Daily life changed. Roadblocks. Factories closed down. Officials lost their respect among us. They lie all the time and won’t help us.”

“Why did the intifada end?” I said.

“People lost the juice,” he said. “And there is no financial support.”

“How long will the war last?” I said.

“The Jews don’t want peace,” he said. “They want to kick us to Jordan. Some say the substitute country is Jordan. I was told by a friend of mine who works for the CIA that Jerusalem will be emptied of all young Palestinians. Only old people will remain.”

Who told you that?” I said.

“I can’t tell you his name,” he said. “He works for the CIA.”

I couldn’t tell if he was making up nonsense or if he actually believed what he said.

“What do you think Arafat’s legacy will be?” I said. “How will he be remembered by the Palestinian people?”

“People used to love Yasser Arafat,” he said. “But those who were not financially supported by him did not trust his policy. Some idolized him. Others criticized him. He will be remembered as a symbolic hero but with no dimension to him.”

“Do you feel safe criticizing Hamas?” I said.

“Now you can say,” he said. “Maybe later on you cannot criticize him.”


What surprised me most about the relative dearth of political propaganda on display in Ramallah was the near-total absence of Yasser Arafat’s portrait anywhere. I saw only two faded posters on a single wall

Arafat Poster Ramallah.jpg

I also only saw one poster of Sheik Yassin, the “spiritual leader” of Hamas who was assassinated by the IDF in March 2004. I found him twisted and hanging from a gutter.

Yassin Poster Ramallah.jpg

Portraits of the relatively benign Mahmoud Abbas were more common though those, too, were rare. I found this one on the side of one of Fatah’s office buildings. (UPDATE: Nevermind, that isn’t Abbas. He just looks a lot like him.)

Abbas Poster Ramallah.jpg

Hezbollah has turned their little corner of Lebanon into a gigantic outdoor museum for their psychotic propaganda. But Hamas doesn’t seem to be interested. Here is the only violent poster I saw in all of Ramallah.

Gunman Poster Ramallah.jpg

Sufian took me to the Palestinian Legislative Council when parliament was in session. Two armed guards stopped us at the top of the driveway. Sufian talked our way past them in just a few seconds. Once past the guards were we able to walk right in and sit down.

I found a seat in the back, flipped open my notebook, and snapped two quick pictures.

PLC 1.jpg

PLC 2.jpg

Not one minute later everyone abruptly stood up. Most headed straight for the door. I came in literally at the last minute. Which was perfect.

A few parliamentarians gathered their things and lingered in small groups. I recognized some of them instantly – Hanan Ashrawi and Saeb Erekat.

Ashrawi in PLC.jpg

I walked toward Erekat and snapped a quick photo of the now-famous picture of Marwan Barghouti, former leader of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, being led away in handcuffs by the IDF for the murder of Israeli civilians. A Fatah member of parliament kept it displayed on the long table in front of his seat.

Barghouti Picture in PLC.jpg

Erekat is one of the more honorable politicians in the Palestinian Authority. He was certainly more worth talking to than some of the fanatical bearded Hamas goons lurking around who seemed to deliberately avoid making eye contact with me. So I buttonholed him and asked for an interview.

“I can give you five minutes,” he said. “But you’ll first have to wait. I need to meet someone first.”

So I sat down with Qays Abdul Karim Abu Laila of the Marxist-Leninist Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The DFLPers have a crackpot ideology, but to their credit they insist Palestinians should only fight Israeli soldiers, and that Palestinians should only fight Israeli soldiers in Palestine. Israeli civilians are to be left alone. The DFLP won a whopping 3 percent of the vote.

“Did people vote for Hamas because they want to keep fighting Israelis?” I said.

“Not more than 20 percent voted for Hamas because they refuse to negotiate,” he said. “A majority of Palestinians, at least 80 percent, support a 1967 border solution.”

I thought you’d have to be a sucker to believe that. And as Lisa Goldman and Allison Kaplan Sommer told me, Israeli voters base their foreign policy opinions on the premise Don’t Be a Sucker.

Still. Two months ago the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research reported that:

75% say that Hamas should engage Israel in peace negotiations. 64% identify themselves as supporters of the peace process and only 14% say they are opposed to the peace process. 53% want the newly elected authority to implement the Road Map and 49% want it to collect arms from the armed factions while 21% do not want it to interfere in the arms of the factions and 27% say the PA should enact laws that allow the factions to keep their arms.

Popular Palestinian opinion is crazily contradictory and all over the place. Here’s a poll from a year ago that shows support for Hamas increased at the same time support for suicide-bombing declined. In just the last three years the overwhelming majority of Palestinians supported suicide-bombing at some times and at other times overwhelmingly opposed suicide-bombing. Oddly enough, Palestinian support for terrorism against Israelis was higher when Hamas was out of power than it is now. At least according to PCPSR’s ongoing polls.

“Why did Fatah lose the election then?” I asked Abu Laila.

“Monopoly of power, corruption, and chaos were motives for many,” he said. “Hamas seemed the most competent alternative. Only 13 percent voted for their program. 50 percent or more voted against corruption.”

“Why did the intifada end?” I said.

Boy did he not like that question. He jerked his head backward and opened his eyes wide without blinking. I had the feeling no one had ever asked him that before. He seemed to have no idea what to say.

Finally he managed something.

“There was fatigue after four years of continuous confrontation with the Israeli occupation,” he said. “People want to breathe. The continuous struggle against the wall shows that the intifada as a mass movement is still going, even if relaxed.”

“Did the intifada help or hurt the Palestinian cause?” I said.

“Without the intifada,” he said, “there would be no international consensus about the need for a two-state solution.

So much for the DFLP’s opposition to terrorism against civilians inside Israel.

And I called bullshit. Every country in the world, aside from some of the rejectionist Islamic states, supported a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict long before the second intifada broke out. I reminded him of what he knew perfectly well already, that Bill Clinton spent years trying to get Yasser Arafat and Ehud Barak to agree to a deal.

“It was obvious that Clinton’s negotiations were not official,” he said. “It was only an attempt to bridge the two parties. It wasn’t until Bush supported a Palestinian state in 2002 that it became the US official policy.”

It’s true that George W. Bush said the words “Palestinian” and “state” together in the same publicly uttered sentence before Bill Clinton did. But Abu Laila had to know that was a full-of-crap answer, that Bill Clinton was perfectly serious when he spent years trying to get the Palestinians a state of their own.

“Are you glad Ariel Sharon, due to his stroke, is no longer prime minister?” I said.

“No,” he said. “I’m not glad. I don’t celebrate the unfortunate illness of any human being. His absence will cause long-term changes in Israel’s image and attitudes. Olmert will have to cope with those realities.”

“Was he better or worse than you thought he would be when he was first elected?” I said.

“Sharon was worse than expected,” he said. “He based his policy on the military option instead of engagement.” He expected something else?

“Do you feel the Arab countries have betrayed the Palestinians?” I said. “They are treated like animals in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria.”

“Yes, I know,” he said. “I wouldn’t say Arab governments are innocent. They are not doing what they should do. It is below the capacities that they have. Still, Israelis are the main enemy and the main source of suffering.”

“But Palestinians are treated worse by Lebanese than they are by Israelis,” I said. “Do you know about the conditions in refugee camps like Ein El Helwe?”

“They are not treated worse in Lebanon,” he said. “That is not possible.”

I blinked at him.

“I have seen these places myself,” I said. “The conditions there are vastly worse than they are here in Ramallah. It’s impossible to even compare them.”

“Here a pregnant woman cannot get to a hospital because of the checkpoints,” he said.

It’s possible the Palestinians in the West Bank have no idea how bad the refugee camps in other countries really are. Or they are so consumed with their own problems that they just don’t care. I do not know.

I’ll say this, though: Those refugee camps in Lebanon have been there for more than 50 years. The hundreds of thousands of Palestinians in Lebanon are not allowed to live anywhere else unless they are Christian. (They aren’t really “camps,” by the way. They are urban, and they are sub-Dickensian slums.) And until last year, vehicles entering the camps were searched by the Lebanese army. Building materials were confiscated. The Lebanese didn’t want the Palestinians to get, you know, the wrong idea. If you want to know what those places are like, just imagine the worst slums you’ve ever seen. Then subtract all the modern building materials. Unspeakable doesn’t even begin to describe them.

Last year I interviewed Mohammad Afif. He sits on Hezbollah’s Political Bureau. I haven’t mentioned this until now because he has almost nothing to say but Hezbollah cliches. But he did say one interesting thing as a pre-emptive rebuttal to Abu Laila.

He told me I should visit Sabra and Chatilla and see how Palestinians in Lebanon live. I told him I already had, that it was clear to me that Palestinians are treated worse by Lebanese than they are by Israelis. He was stunned that I dared say that to him. But he quickly composed himself and said “Yes, you are right. I am sorry about that.”

Congregating in PLC.jpg

I did get to talk to Saeb Erekat briefly before he left the building. Sufian told me Palestinians nicknamed him The Penguin. Why? Because he looks a lot like one.

“Why did Hamas win?” I said.

“Two things,” he said. “Our mistakes and Israeli unilateralism.” He spoke quickly and confidently in perfect crisp English. He didn’t sound so much like he had rehearsed his answers (although he probably had), but more like a man who was sure he was right and believed what he said.

“What are you in Fatah going to do now that you’ve lost?” I said. “How will you win the next election?”

“We’re rebuilding from scratch,” he said. “We need soul searching, reform, and new faces. This movement has had the same faces for 41 years. We need change. And we’re willing to take responsibility.”

“Why did the intifada end?” I said. The question didn’t phase him like it did Abu Laila.

“I don’t know,” he said. “And I don’t care. I’m just glad it’s over. Hopefully it ended out of an understanding that it was bad. I condemned every single attack.”

“What do you think was the biggest Palestinian mistake since the Oslo peace process began?” I said.

“We were unsuccessful in terms of transparency and accountability,” he said. “We could have done it. But we failed. That’s why Hamas won. We should have been tough on people who abused their offices.”

“What was the biggest Israeli mistake since Oslo?” I said.

“The motto of No Sacred Dates,” he said. “Each time they had a date-based obligation, they didn’t do it. They kept building settlements.”

“Why is a unilateral Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank such a big problem for Palestinians?” I said. “Would you rather the Israelis stay?”

“The problem with unilateralism is the outcome of it,” he said. “The Israelis will get everything they want without negotiation.” Palestinians should have thought of that, then, before electing people who say negotiation is treason. “The net result will be more bloodshed. We all know the outcome will be a two-state solution.”

“Yes,” I said. “Everyone knows there will be two states in the end. So why is it taking so long?”

“I founded the Palestinian peace camp in 1979,” he said.

“I know,” I said.

“I am against suicide bombing morally, not politically,” he said.

“How many Palestinians agree with you about that?” I said.

“Few,” he said. “Very few.” He said this inside the Palestinian Legislative Council within earshot of his colleagues, many of whom speak English and could hear him perfectly well. “We have to keep working,” he said and gently put his hand on my shoulder. “It is difficult in this environment.”

Post-script: Please help support non-corporate writing. I would do this for free if I could. But I can’t. Thank you all so much for your help so far.


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